#AtoZAprilChallenge: Naturalism #WritersWednesday

The Memory Remains by valeskamoura Naturalism in literature (from Wikipedia): “Naturalism was a literary movement or tendency from the 1880s to 1940s that used detailed realism to suggest that social conditions, heredity, and environment had inescapable force in shaping human character. It was a mainly unorganized Literary movement that sought to depict believable everyday reality, as opposed to such movements as Romanticism or Surrealism, in which subjects may receive highly symbolic, idealistic, or even supernatural treatment.”

From Keywords: “Naturalism is now primarily a critical term of literature or of art, but it is a more complex word, as its history indicates, than is usually realised. It first appeared in English, from C17, as a term in religious and philosophical argument. It had been preceded by naturalist, in the same context, from C16. It followed a particular sense of Nature in which there was a contrast with God or spirit. To study the natural causes of events, or to explain or justify morality form nature or human nature, was to be a naturalist and to propound naturalism, although the actual terms seem to have been conferred by their opponents… Naturalist was a common C17 term for natural  philosopher, or as we would now say Scientist: in practice those we would now call physicists or biologists

(From C19) Naturalism in the general philosophical  and scientific sense (was) much influence by the new  and controversial developments in geology and biology and especially by Darwin’s theory of natural selection in Evolution. The school of naturalisme in France was especially affected , as in Zola,  but the idea of the application of scientific method in literature: specifically the study of heredity in the story of a family, but also, more generally, in the sense of describing and interpreting human behaviour  in strictly natural terms, excluding the hypothesis of some controlling or directing force outside human nature.”

Related article on Naturalism in American literature.

#AToZAprilChallenge: Genius

Salvatore Bruno Wikipedia: “A genius is a person who displays exceptional intellectual ability, creativity, or originality, typically to a degree that is associated with the achievement of an unprecedented leap of insight. This may refer to a particular aspect of an individual, or the individual in his or her entirety; to a scholar in many subjects (e.g. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz or Leonardo da Vinci)[1] or a scholar in a single subject (e.g., Albert Einstein or Charles Darwin). There is no scientifically precise definition of genius, and the question of whether the notion itself has any real meaning has long been a subject of debate.”

Genius came into English from C14, in its main Latin sense  – from genius – a guardian spirit. It was extended to mean ‘a characteristic disposition or quality’ from C16, as still in ‘every man has his genius’ (Johnson, 1780), and ‘barbarous and violent genius of the age’ (Hume, 1754). The development towards the dominate modern meaning of ‘extraordinary ability’ is complex; it occurred, interactively, in both English and French, and later German. It seems to have been originally connected with the idea of ‘spirit’ through the notion of ‘inspiration’… This sense is always close to the developing sense of Creative… A good test case is ‘the English genius for compromise’. (Keywords)